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To collect this wool, of course, you need to shear the animals, just like you do for sheep. In a study published today in Veterinary Record , researchers from the University of Veterinary Medicine in Vienna tested three different ways of shearing alpacas and recorded how the animals reacted, all in hopes of finding out the least stressful way to do the deed.
The study was partly funded by organizations that I did not know existed but am glad do, like the Alpaca Association of Germany. So, how do you shear an alpaca? You can restrain it on a mattress on the ground and shear it.
And how do you figure out if an alpaca is stressed out? Part of it is looking at how heart rate, body temperature, and breathing rate change during the shearing. First thing, the scientists wanted to know if simply being restrained stresses alpacas out. So, big surprise, being restrained is probably stressful for the alpacas. Then, the researchers repeated the tests while shearing the animals — to see which method of shearing and restraint was the most stressful.
Share this: Twitter Facebook. Like this: Like Loading Email Address: Follow. Silk Scarf Dye Class. Patchwork Nuno Felted Scarf Class. Needle Felted Mouse Class. Paint with Fiber Class. Needle Felted Chipmunk Class. Nuno Felted Scarf Class. Nuno Felted Poncho and matching Wristlets Class. Needle Felted Long Eared Jerboa.
Needle Felted Raccoon Class March 1, Nuno Felted Vest Class March 13, Nuno Felted Scarf Class March 24, Wet Felted Wall Hanging March 27, Needle Felted Opossum Class March 31, Needle Felted Mouse Class March 24, Painting with Fiber Class March 29, Shearing Alpacas The harvesting of this gorgeous fiber from our alpacas is a very special event for us. Share this: Twitter Facebook. Like this: Like Loading Email Address: Follow.
Silk Scarf Dye Class. Patchwork Nuno Felted Scarf Class. Needle Felted Mouse Class. Paint with Fiber Class. Needle Felted Chipmunk Class. Nuno Felted Scarf Class. Nuno Felted Poncho and matching Wristlets Class. But the number of animals and breeders has been growing for years. Just like sheep, alpacas must be shorn regularly to harvest their wool.
The procedure is an unusual one for the animals and thus a source of stress. An interdisciplinary team of researchers from Vetmeduni Vienna has now investigated for the first time which shearing position produces the least amount of stress for the animals and therefore represents the least stressful method from the point of view of the animal's wellbeing.
Unlike sheep, which are usually turned onto their backs, alpaca breeders use several different methods of restraint. The animals are either held by assistants in a standing position, restrained on a mattress on the ground or placed on special shearing tables. Previously, there had been no studies as to which method produced the least stress among the animals. Saliva and faeces contain cortisol, which is an important stress marker.
Saliva cortisol is considered to reflect a short-term stress response, whereas faecal cortisol shows longer-lasting stress responses. Besides measuring stress-induced hormonal levels, the researchers also looked at clinical parameters, such as heart rate , respiratory rate and body temperature, as well as the animals' behaviour.
To describe the impact of shearing on the alpacas, the team divided its study into two parts. Part one studied the level of stress caused by each of the restraining methods, as the shearing itself represents a separate stress factor. In part two, the animals were divided into groups and shorn using one of the methods. Animals that were restrained without shearing exhibited no significant changes in terms of the clinical parameters.
Both the respiratory rate and heart rate remained at normal levels. But if the animals were restrained and also shorn, the clinical values changed significantly in the animals that were restrained on the floor or on the table. For all restraining methods, however, body temperature remained unchanged. The analysis of the cortisol concentrations in saliva and faeces, on the other hand, showed that the animals were also stressed in the first part of the study despite the almost unchanged clinical parameters.
Saliva cortisol levels were clearly higher after just 20 minutes and increased even further within 40 minutes. The cortisol concentrations then remained unchanged, although the higher levels could be demonstrated in faeces even 33 hours later. During restraint and shearing, the cortisol values also increased regardless of the shearing position.
When animals were restrained on the ground, however, this led to a more significant increase of hormone levels over time compared to the other two methods. Faecal cortisol levels remained at the same high levels in all three groups. This means that you can practically add the values. The standing position was tolerated the best by the alpacas in terms of the clinical parameters. Restraining the animals in the standing position, however, only makes sense and is only possible if the alpacas remain calm.
If they resist from the beginning, the risk of injury to themselves or to one of the handlers is too great, says first author Wittek. These animals should therefore be restrained on a table. The handlers usually know the behaviour of their animals and can decide in advance which method to use. Explore further. More from Biology and Medical. Your feedback will go directly to Science X editors.
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The ability to self- inject in MS patients has been associated with a reduced risk of missed injections and drug discontinuation, and a beneficial effect on patient independence. We reviewed the available published evidence on the characteristics of this device. Inferior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm related to intramuscular injection.
Pseudoaneurysms of the inferior gluteal artery are uncommon and are often related to blunt or penetrating trauma, infections and fractures of the pelvis. Ultrasound with color Doppler and computerized tomography with multi-detectors are useful non-invasive tools for diagnosis. However, both diagnosis and therapy are facilitated by catheter angiography. It also illustrates the usefulness of a minimally invasive modality for treatment of these lesions. Currently available cyanide antidotes must be given by intravenous injection over 5—10 min, making them illsuited for treating many people in the field, as could occur in a major fire, an industrial accident, or a terrorist attack.
These scenarios call for a drug that can be given quickly, e. We have shown that aquohydroxocobinamide is a potent cyanide antidote in animal models of cyanide poisoning, but it is unstable in solution and poorly absorbed after intramuscular injection. Here we show that adding sodium nitrite to cobinamide yields a stable derivative referred to as nitrocobinamide that rescues cyanide-poisoned mice and rabbits when given by intramuscular injection.
Depletion of penicillin G residues in heavy sows after intramuscular injection. Part I: Tissue residue depletion. Treatments differed by pattern and maximum injection volume per s Several types of quadratus lumborum block QLB are used for postoperative analgesia and are believed to be effective against both somatic and visceral pain via a local anesthetic LA effect in the paravertebral space PVS.
This volunteer study included 5 healthy men and 1 woman, with no previous medical history. Intramuscular QLB and lateral transversus abdominis plane block were performed under real-time ultrasound guidance for comparison of sensory deprivation range. Two days later, the same procedure was performed on the contralateral side of the body. Sensory perception was also evaluated by the pinprick test at 90 minutes after injection.
In total, we performed 11 intramuscular QLBs and 11 lateral transversus abdominis plane blocks. The analgesic area corresponded to the side of the body that was ipsilateral to the block. Ultrasound-guided intramuscular QLBs are not clinically useful for procedures requiring LA spread into the PVS but do result in an ipsilateral analgesic effect in healthy volunteers. Parasuicidal poisoning by intramuscular injection of insecticide: A case report.
Suicidal poisoning by ingestion of organophosphate OP insecticides represents a serious emergency with a high mortality rate. However, attempted suicide via the parenteral route has rarely been reported. The present study reports a case of parasuicide by self- injection of an organophosphorus insecticide phoxim, phenylglyoxylonitrile oxime O,O-diethyl phosphorothioate into the distal region of the left arm. The patient developed necrosis at the injection site and an abscess of the affected limb following injection.
A fasciotomy and surgical debridement resulted in the symptoms of the patient disappearing within a few days and were vital in shortening the course of the disease. Best infection control practices for intradermal, subcutaneous, and intramuscular needle injections.
METHODS: A development group summarized evidence-based best practices for preventing injection -associated infections in resource-limited settings. The development process included a breakdown of the WHO reference definition of a safe injection into a list of potentially critical steps, a review of the literature for each of these steps, the formulation of best practices, and the submission of the draft document to peer review.
However, when intradermal, subcutaneous, or intramuscular injections are medically indicated, best infection control practices include the use of sterile injection equipment, the prevention of contamination of injection equipment and medication, the prevention of needle-stick injuries to the provider, and the prevention of access to used needles.
WHO will revise the best practices five years after initial development, i. The 2 antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning in the United States must be administered by intravenous injection. In the out-of-hospital setting, intravenous injection is not practical, particularly for mass casualties, and intramuscular injection would be preferred.
The purpose of this study is to determine whether sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate are effective cyanide antidotes when administered by intramuscular injection. We used a randomized, nonblinded, parallel-group study design in 3 mammalian models: cyanide gas inhalation in mice, with treatment postexposure; intravenous sodium cyanide infusion in rabbits, with severe hypotension as the trigger for treatment; and intravenous potassium cyanide infusion in pigs, with apnea as the trigger for treatment.
The drugs were administered by intramuscular injection , and all 3 models were lethal in the absence of therapy. In all 3 species, survival in treated animals was significantly better than in control animals log rank test, P injection difference: plasma lactate, saline solution-treated versus nitrite- or thiosulfate-treated 1. We conclude that sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate administered by intramuscular injection are effective against severe cyanide poisoning in 3 clinically relevant animal models of out-of-hospital emergency care.
Published by Elsevier Inc. Intramuscular injection of malignant hyperthermia trigger agents induces hypermetabolism in susceptible and nonsusceptible individuals. A new minimally invasive metabolic test for the diagnosis of susceptibility for malignant hyperthermia measuring intramuscular p CO 2 and lactate following local application of caffeine and halothane in humans was recently proposed.
The present study tested the hypothesis that a more simplified test protocol allows a differentiation between malignant hyperthermia susceptible MHS and malignant hyperthermia nonsusceptible MHN and control individuals. With approval of the local ethics committee and informed consent, microdialysis and p CO 2 probes with attached microtubing were placed into the lateral vastus muscle of six MHS, seven MHN and seven control individuals.
The maximal rate of p CO 2 increase was significantly higher in MHS than in MHN and control individuals following application of halothane and caffeine, respectively. Intramuscular caffeine injection leads to a significantly higher increase of local lactate levels in MHS than in MHN and control individuals, whereas halothane increased local lactate levels in all investigated groups.
Haemodynamic and systemic metabolic parameters did not differ between the investigated groups. Local caffeine and halothane injection increased intramuscular metabolism in MHS individuals significantly more than in the two other groups.
In contrast to previous investigations, direct injection of the concentrations of halothane described here increased lactate and p CO 2 even in MHN skeletal muscle. Sciatic nerve injury from intramuscular injection : a persistent and global problem. An intramuscular i. Safe injection practices need to be understood by doctors and nurses alike. The aims of this study were to determine if sciatic nerve injury because of i.
Intramuscular injection related sciatic nerve injury claims to the New Zealand Accident Compensation Corporation between July and September were reviewed. Nursing organisations were surveyed to enquire about guidelines on i. There were eight claims for sciatic nerve injection injury made to the ACC during the 3-year study period; all were in young adults. Only one of the nursing organisations contacted had published guidelines on i. Seventeen reports of patients with sciatic nerve injury from i.
Nine court decisions finding in favour of the plaintiff were identified, all from the North American legal system. A broad range of drugs were implicated in the offending i. Sciatic nerve injury from an i. The consequences of this injury are potentially devastating. Safer alternative sites for i. These should be promoted more widely by medical and nursing organisations. To evaluate Korean physiatrists' practice of performing intramuscular botulinum toxin injection in anticoagulated patients and to assess their preference in controlling the bleeding risk before injection.
As part of an international collaboration survey study, a questionnaire survey was administered to Korean physiatrists. Physiatrists were asked about their level of experience with botulinum toxin injection , the safe international normalized ratio range in anticoagulated patients undergoing injection , their tendency for injecting into deep muscles, and their experience of bleeding complications. Only 1 physiatrist replied that he had encountered a case of compartment syndrome.
In accordance with the lack of consensus in performing intramuscular botulinum toxin injection in anticoagulated patients, our survey shows a wide range of practices among many Korean physiatrists; they tend to avoid botulinum toxin injection in anticoagulated patients and are uncertain about how to approach these patients.
The results of this study emphasize the need for formulating a proper international consensus on botulinum toxin injection management in anticoagulated patients. Guiding intramuscular diaphragm injections using real-time ultrasound and electromyography. We describe a unique method that combines ultrasound and electromyography to guide intramuscular diaphragm injections in anesthetized large animals. Ultrasound was used to visualize the diaphragm on each side of spontaneously breathing, anesthetized beagle dogs and cynomolgus macaques.
An electromyography EMG needle was introduced and directed by ultrasound to confirm that the needle entered the muscular portion of the diaphragm, and methylene blue was injected. All methylene blue injections were confirmed to have been placed appropriately into the diaphragm.
This study demonstrates the feasibility and accuracy of using ultrasound and EMG to guide injections and to reduce complications associated with conventional blind techniques. Ultrasound guidance can be used for clinical EMG of the diaphragm. Clinicopathologic, gross necropsy, and histologic findings after intramuscular injection of carprofen in a pigeon Columba livia model. To evaluate the pathologic effects of carprofen in a pigeon model Columba livia , 52 young adult pigeons were used in a randomized control study design.
Four pigeons served as saline- injected controls. Four pigeons from each group and 1 control pigeon were randomly selected on days 2, 4, 6, and 8 to obtain blood samples and then were euthanatized and submitted for necropsy. Liver, kidney, and muscle injection sites had significantly increased P intramuscular administration of carprofen is associated with increased aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase enzyme concentrations, gross lesions in muscle injection sites and liver, and histologic lesions in liver and muscle.
Umbilical cord mesenchyme stem cell local intramuscular injection for treatment of uterine niche. Abstract Background: Uterine niche is defined as a triangular anechoic structure at the site of the scar or a gap in the myometrium at the site of a previous caesarean section. The main clinical manifestations are postmenstrual spotting and intrauterine infection, which may seriously affect the daily life of nonpregnant women.
Trials have shown an excellent safety and efficacy for the potential of mesenchymal stem cells MSCs as a therapeutic option for scar reconstruction. Therefore, this study is designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of using MSCs in the treatment for the uterine niche.
The primary outcome of this trial is to evaluate the proportion of participants at 6 months who is found uterine niche in the uterus by transvaginal utrasonography. Adverse events will be documented in a case report form. Discussion: This trial is the first investigation of the potential for therapeutic use of MSCs for the management of uterine niche after cesarean delivery. Conclusion: This protocol will help to determine the efficacy and safety of MSCs treatment in uterine niche and bridge the gap with regards to the current preclinical and clinical evidence.
Methods: Seventy-two patients undergoing major gynecological laparoscopic surgery were randomized to receive either postoperative analgesia via intermittent intramuscular injection of morphine Group 1 or patient controlled analgesia PCA - Group 2. All patients received anesthesia via a standardized protocol. Postoperative pain levels were recorded via a 10 cm visual analogue scale, and sedation scores were recorded on a standard PCA form.
Episodes of nausea and vomiting were also recorded on the same form. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between intramuscular analgesia and PCA for any of the factors studied. Most significantly it was found that most patients ceased to require either form of parenteral analgesia within 24 hours of their procedure, regardless of the operating time. Conclusion: It is important for the surgeon to be aware of the effects of postoperative analgesia on his or her patients' level of satisfaction.
We do not recommend the use of PCA analgesia following major laparoscopic gynecological surgery. Comparison of liquid chromatographic and bioassay procedures for determining depletion of intramuscularly injected tylosin. Crossbred pigs weighing kg were injected intramuscularly in the ham with 8. Animals were slaughtered in groups of 3 at intervals of 4 h, and 1, 2, 4, and 8 days after injection , and samples of blood, injected muscle, uninjected muscle, liver, and kidney were analyzed by liquid chromatography LC and by bioassay using Sarcina lutea as the test organism.
The LC method was far more sensitive with a detection limit of less than 0. Results by bioassay and LC sometimes differed considerably for tissue samples. Residues in all tissues were below the tolerance limit of 0. Residues were not detected in any tissue of any animal at 48 h after treatment. Changes in plasma enzyme activity after intramuscular injection of bupivacaine into the human biceps brachii.
The purpose of this study was to examine the time course of changes in plasma creatine kinase CK , lactate dehydrogenase LDH , aspartate AST and alanine aminotransferase ALT activity after intramuscular injection of 0. Blood samples were obtained from the antecubital vein before and 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after the injection.
Affected muscle size was visualized using magnetic resonance imaging MRI , which was performed 4 days after the injection. Plasma CK activity started to increase 2 h and peaked 12 h after the injection. Muscle around the injection sites showed increased T2 signal intensity using MRI. When smaller 2 mL or larger 20 mL amounts of BPVC were injected into the biceps brachii in additional experiments, the amount of increase in plasma CK activity appeared to be related to the size of the affected muscle.
It was concluded that CK started to leak from damaged muscle cells shortly after the BPVC injection , and the amount of increase in plasma CK activity appeared to reflect the amount of muscle damage. This study was carried out in order to find both the single-dose intramuscular injection toxicity and the approximate lethal dose of samjeong pharmacopuncture SP in Sprague-Dawley SD rats.
The SD rats in this study were divided into four groups, one control group 1. All groups consisted of five male and five female rats. SP was injected as a single-dose intramuscularly at the thigh. After the injection , general symptoms and weight were observed for 14 days. After the observations had ended, hematologic and serum biochemical examinations, necropsy and a local tolerance test at the injection site were performed.
Cheongwon, Chungbuk. Animal experiments were approved by the Ethics Committee Approval Number: No deaths occurred in any of the three experimental groups. The injection of SP had no effects on the general symptoms, body weights, results of the hematologic, and serum biochemical examinations, and necropsy findings.
In local tolerance tests at the injection sites, mild inflammation was observed in the experimental group, but it did not appear to be a treatment related effect. Under the conditions of this test, the results from the injection of SP suggest that the approximate lethal dose of SP is above 1. Therefore, the clinical use of SP is thought to be safe.
Investigation of suitability of ventrogluteal site for intramuscular injections in children aged 36 months and under. This study was performed to determine suitability of ventrogluteal VG site for intramuscular IM injections in children aged 36 months and under. The present study was designed as a prospective descriptive study and performed between January and June.
The study included a total of children aged 36 months and under that met the study criteria. The subcutaneous tissue thickness and muscle thickness of anterolateral, deltoid, and VG sites were measured and assessed by ultrasound. A strong and powerful correlation was identified between the measurements of subcutaneous tissue and muscle thicknesses in the injection site by the age groups.
The thickness of subcutaneous tissue was deltoid injection in children aged 36 months and under. Randomised, prospective, non-blinded pilot study comparing the effect of intramuscular steroid injections and intralesional steroid injections in the management of tennis elbow. Background Tennis elbow is an overuse injury affecting people performing repetitive forearm movements. It is a soft tissue disorder that causes significant disability and pain.
The aim of the study was to establish that an intramuscular steroid injection is effective in the short-term pain relief and functional improvement of tennis elbow. The severity of pain at the injection site was monitored to determine whether the intramuscular injection is better tolerated than the intralesional injection. Blinding proved difficult as the injection sites differed and placebo arms were not included in the study.
Conclusion Non-inferiority of intramuscular to intralesional injections was not confirmed; however, the intramuscular injection proved to be effective in reducing tennis elbow-related symptoms and was found less painful at the site of injection at the time of administration. Influence of Cu10x copper nanoparticles intramuscular injection on mineral composition of rat spleen. This was done, because the spleen is considered to be the organ most amenable of immunological defense and sensitive to exposure.
The research is new and based on the necessity to check the accumulation of elements, which can result in toxic effects, and also the character of the influence of nanoparticles on the change of the natural fluctuation rhythm, as well as the interrelation between them. Alfaxalone as an intramuscular injectable anesthetic in koi carp Cyprinus carpio. Fish are commonly anesthetized with MS tricaine methanesulfonate , a sodium-channel-blocker used as an immersion anesthetic, but its mechanism of action as a general anesthetic is uncertain.
Alfaxalone has been evaluated and was deemed successful as an immersion agent in koi carp. Alfaxalone is an effective intramuscular anesthetic in multiple species. A reliable intramuscular anesthetic in fish would be useful in multiple settings.
The purpose of this study was to investigate alfaxalone as an intramuscular injectable anesthetic agent in koi carp Cyprinus carpio. Eight koi carp were utilized in a crossover design. They were assessed every 15 min for opercular rate and sedation score.
The sedation score was based on a visual scale from 0 to 5, 0 indicating no response and 5 indicating absent righting reflex and anesthesia. Anesthetized koi were placed on a fish anesthesia delivery system FADS. Median peak sedation scores were 1. The duration of anesthesia and opercular rate were unpredictable.
Due to variation in response despite consistent conditions, as well as risk of mortality, intramuscular alfaxalone cannot be recommended for anesthesia in koi carp. Tissue damage caused by the intramuscular injection of long-acting penicillin. In order to elucidate whether tissue damage produced on occasion by intramuscular injection of long-acting penicillin is due to accidental intra-arterial injection or vasospasm, two types of experiments were carried out in rabbits.
In the first set of experiments, six New Zealand White rabbits were given intra-arterial injections of 0. In a second set of experiments, 0. The legs of the rabbits that received the intra-arterial injection of penicillin invariably developed ischemic manifestations. None of the legs of rabbits given intra-arterial injections of normal saline had pathologic manifestations.
None of the rabbits that received the periarterial penicillin preparation or normal saline developed abnormalities. These results strongly suggest that the tissue damage produced by penicillin is secondary to the intra-arterial administration of the drug. Side effects and potential risk factors of botulinum toxin type A intramuscular injections in knee flexion contractures of hemophiliacs.
Knee flexion contracture KFC is a common complication of recurrent hemarthrosis in children and young adults with hemophilia. If the KFC is not prevented by means of primary prophylaxis and treated properly and early be means of physical medicine and rehabilitation , it will become fixed. The risks of intramuscular injections to a hemophilia patient cannot be underestimated iatrogenic muscle hematomas and pseudotumors.
This paper calls the attention of hemophilia treaters on the potential risks of this apparently interesting technique. Raising false expectations in these patients should be avoided. Clinical symptoms of PDSS were similar to those of acute oral olanzapine intoxication. The patient received supportive treatment and recovered fully. Establishing a new appropriate intramuscular injection site in the deltoid muscle.
It is becoming increasingly important for clinicians to identify a safer intramuscular IM injection site in the deltoid muscle because of possible complications following the vaccine administration of IM injections. We herein examined 4 original IM sites located on the perpendicular line through the mid-acromion to establish a safer IM injection site.
Thirty healthy volunteers participated in this study and the distances from our 4 IM sites to some anatomical landmarks on their left arms were measured. Ultrasonography US was also performed to measure the thickness of the deltoid muscle and identify the posterior circumflex humeral artery PCHA along the course of the axillary nerve.
Subcutaneous thickness was measured using 2 methods: measuring the skin thickness with caliper after pinching the skin, and with US. Subcutaneous thickness can be assessed with almost the same accuracy by US or measuring with calipers after pinching the skin. The results of the present study support the improved vaccine practice for safer IM injections. Repeated pulse intramuscular injection of pralidoxime chloride in severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. This study aimed to clarify the efficacy of 2 therapies for patients with severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning, including atropine adverse effects, the length of intensive care unit ICU stay, complications, and mortality.
A retrospective cohort study of cases collected from May to November at 2 urban university hospitals was conducted. Patients admitted to the hospital for organophosphate poisoning were divided into 2 groups with different therapeutic regimens: group A was administered a repeated pulse intramuscular injection of pralidoxime chloride, and group B received the same initial dosage of atropine and pralidoxime chloride, but pralidoxime chloride intravenous therapy was administered for only 3 days, regardless of the length of atropine therapy.
Subsequently, atropine adverse effects, length of ICU stay, complications, and mortality were statistically analyzed and compared between the 2 groups. The total dose of atropine was In patients with severe poisoning, group A used less atropine, had fewer atropine adverse effects, and had a shorter ICU stay.
We suggest that therapy should be started as early as possible using a sufficient amount of pralidoxime chloride started intramuscularly in combination with atropine and that the drugs should not be prematurely discontinued. Intravenous haloperidol has been associated with torsades de pointes TdP. These two sudden deaths were probable adverse drug reactions ADRs following intramuscular IM antipsychotics.
The autopsies described lack of heart pathology and were highly compatible with the possibility of TdP in the absence of risk factors other than the accumulation of antipsychotics with a high serum peak after the last injection , leading to death within hours.
The first case was a year-old African-American male with schizophrenia but no medical issues. The second case involves a year-old African-American female with metabolic syndrome. The study of haloperidol glucuronidation and its impairment in some African-Americans is urgently recommended.
Effects of letrozole in combination with low-dose intramuscular injection of human menopausal gonadotropin on ovulation and pregnancy of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. To explore the effects of letrozole LE in combination with low-dose intramuscular injection of human menopausal gonadotropin HMG on the ovulation induction and pregnancy of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome PCOS.
LE and CC were orally taken according to the prescribed dosage on the 3rd-5th days of menstruation respectively, and 75 IU HMG was given through intramuscular injection. The ovulation induction parameters and pregnancy outcomes were observed. Thirteen female Rhesus macaques were intramuscularly injected with 90Sr NO 3 2 diluted in sodium citrate solution.
We observed observed that the activities measured in plasma of these nonhuman primates NHPs were consistently lower than those predicted by the default human biokinetic models. The urinary excretion from the NHPs at times immediately after injection was much greater than that in humans.
The fecal excretion rates were found to be in relatively better agreement with humans. These differences were attributed to the higher calcium diet of the NHPs 0. These observations were consistent with the early animal and human studies that showed the effect of calcium on strontium metabolism, specifically urinary excretion. Strontium is preferentially filtered at a much higher rate in kidneys than calcium because it is less completely bound to protein than is calcium.
Furthermore, these differences, along with large inter-animal variability, should be considered when estimating the behavior of Sr in humans from the metabolic data in animals or vice-versa. The significant expansion in the use of nanoparticles and submicron particles during the last 20 years has led to increasing concern about their potential toxicity to humans and particularly their impact on male fertility.
Currently, an insufficient number of studies have focused on the testicular biodistribution of particles. The aim of our study was to assess the distribution of nm fluorescent particles in mouse testes after intramuscular injection. To this end, testes were removed from 5 groups of 3 mice each at 1 h H1 , 4 days D4 , 21 days D21 , 45 days D45 and 90 days D90 after the injection of 7. We examined histological sections from these samples by epifluorescence microscopy and confocal microscopy and identified testicular biodistribution of a small number of particles in groups H1, D4, D21, D45 and D Using CD11b immunostaining, we showed that particles were not carried into the testis by macrophages.
The intratesticular repartition of particles mainly followed testicular vascularization. Finally, we found some particles in seminiferous tubules but could not determine if the blood-testis barrier was crossed. Finally, we found some particles in seminiferous tubules but could not determine if the blood—testis barrier was crossed.
Background Llamas Lama glama are induced ovulators and the process of ovulation depends on dominant follicular size. In addition, a close relationship between behavioural estrus and ovulation is not registered in llamas. Therefore, the exogenous control of follicular development with hormones aims to predict the optimal time to mate. But, in llamas, there is no reports regarding the appropriate dosages to be used and most protocols have been designed by extrapolation from those recommended for other ruminants.
The aim of the present study was to characterize plasma E2 concentrations in intact female llamas following a single intramuscular i. Methods Twelve non pregnant and non lactating sexually mature llamas were i. Blood samples were collected immediately before injection , at 1, 6, 12, 24 h after treatment and then daily until day 14 post injection. Changes in hormone concentrations with time were analyzed in each group by analysis of variance ANOVA using a repeated measures within-SS design.
Although plasma E2 profiles differed over time among groups there were no differences between them on AUC values. Conclusions The i. Rapid geographical clustering of wound botulism in Germany after subcutaneous and intramuscular injection of heroin. Wound infections due to Clostridium botulinum in Germany are rare and occur predominantly in heroin injectors, especially after subcutaneous or intramuscular injection of heroin "skin popping" , which is contaminated with spores of C. We report a rapid geographical clustering of cases in Germany in a region between Cologne, Bonn, and Aachen with wound botulism and consecutive systemic C.
A group of 12 IDUs with wound botulism after "skin popping. Mechanical respiratory support was necessary. Five of the IDUs were treated with antitoxin, but mechanical respiratory support could not be avoided. The mean ventilation duration was This report describes rapid geographical clustering of wound botulism with severe respiratory complications in IDUs after "skin popping," which has not previously been reported either in Germany or any other European country.
Based on these observations and those in other European countries, we conclude that there is a trend towards "skin popping," suggesting a change in injection practices in IDUs. Secondly, we conclude that the total number of cases with wound botulism is likely to increase because "skin popping" is the main risk factor.
Sustained-release progesterone nanosuspension following intramuscular injection in ovariectomized rats. The production of an intramuscular IM injection of natural progesterone would provide a safer solution than using semi synthetic progesterone. However, disadvantages such as low solubility and a short half life prevent the use of natural progesterone.
In this study, we formulated a sustained release form of natural progesterone to be given as IM injection. A progesterone nanosuspension PNS was first developed and then dispersed in a thermosensitive gel matrix. The selected nanoparticles showed an average particle size of nm and a zeta potential approaching mV. The terminal half life was The PNS in gel was significantly different from the control in rate and extent at P injected every 36 h instead of every day.
Moreover, this formula is expected to provide a much safer choice than the use of semi-synthetic progesterone. Animals were immunized weekly during 9 weeks, plus 9 immunizations every 14 days. Rats were inspected daily for clinical signs. Body weight, food consumption, and rectal temperature were measured during the administration of doses.
Blood samples were collected for hematological, serum biochemical determinations and EGF titles at the beginning, three months and at the end of experimentation. Gross necropsy and histological examination of tissues were performed on animals at the end of the assay. Vaccine provoked the apparition of antibodies against EGF in the rats, demonstrating rat species relevance in these studies. Body weight gain, food and water consumption were not affected.
Both vaccine-treated groups showed neutrophil elevation, besides an AST increase probably related to the damage at the administration site. In summary, the clinical pathology findings together with the body temperature results, appear to be caused by the inflammatory reaction at the administration site of the vaccine, mainly. Intramuscular injection of alfaxalone in combination with butorphanol for sedation in cats. To assess quality of sedation following intramuscular IM injection of two doses of alfaxalone in combination with butorphanol in cats.
Prospective, randomized, 'blinded' clinical study. A total of 38 cats undergoing diagnostic imaging or noninvasive procedures. Cats were allocated randomly to be administered butorphanol 0. Temperament [1 friendly to 5 aggressive ], response to injection , sedation score at 2, 6, 8, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes, overall sedation quality scored after data collection [1 excellent to 4 inadequate ] and recovery quality were assessed.
Heart rate HR , respiratory rate f R and arterial haemoglobin saturation SpO 2 were recorded every 5 minutes. Groups were compared using t tests and Mann-Whitney U tests. Seven cats required oxygen supplementation. Complete recovery times were shorter in AB2 Twitching was the most common adverse event. Monitoring of SpO 2 is recommended. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of enrofloxacin after single intramuscular injection in Pacific white shrimp.
The pharmacokinetic properties and tissue distribution of enrofloxacin EF were investigated after single intramuscular i. EF and its metabolite ciprofloxacin CF were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. After i. The volume of distribution V d area of EF was 3. CF, the mainly metabolite of EF, was detected in hemolymph, muscle and hepatopancreas.
The C max was 0. Based on a minimum inhibitory concentration MIC of 0. Pharmacokinetics of dinalbuphine sebacate and nalbuphine in human after intramuscular injection of dinalbuphine sebacate in an extended-release formulation. Nalbuphine is a semi-synthetic opioid indicated for the relief of moderate to severe pain.
Its short half-life requires frequent injections in clinical practice, resulting in a greater incidence of adverse events. A prodrug of nalbuphine has been developed, dinalbuphine sebacate DNS , dissolved in a simple oil-based injectable formulation, which could deliver and maintain an effective blood level of nalbuphine. An open-label, prospective, two-period study was performed in healthy volunteers to verify the extended blood concentration profile of nalbuphine.
To prevent DNS hydrolysis during sample analysis, the effect of four esterase inhibitors was evaluated in the quantitation of DNS in human whole blood and thenoyltrifluoroacetone was chosen. The bioavailability of nalbuphine from intramuscularly injected DNS relative to that from nalbuphine HCl was The mean absorption time of nalbuphine from DNS was Maximum plasma florfenicol concentrations Cmax, measured via high-performance-liquid-chromatography were achieved rapidly, leading to a higher Cmax of 4.
Multiple SC dosing at 48hr intervals achieved a Cmax of 4. The area under the curve and terminal elimination half-lives were Florfenicol decreased the following hematological parameters after repeated administration between weeks 0 and 3: total protein 6. To evaluate the result of releasing adult intramuscular injection associated gluteal muscle contracture under the monitor of arthroscope by radiofrequency probe.
From June to June , cases of bilateral gluteal muscle contracture were treated with radiofrequency colation under the arthroscope and solution with an average age of 24 years from 18 to 40 years. There were 57 males and 51 females. Preoperatively, the course of the outline of the femur greater trochanter the sciatic nerve in buttocks and the area of gluteal muscle contracture were marked.
With the patients firmly anchored in the straight lateral position, normal saline which contains Adnephrin was injected between the surface of contracted gluteus and subcutaneous fat to reduce bleeding in operation. The ports for the motorized shaver and radiofrequency probe were located at the edge of gluteal muscle contracture and were 5 mm superior to the greater trochanter. The 6 mm diameter port for the arthroscope was 3 cm inferior to the greater trochanter. Space was made between contracture bands and overlying subcutaneous tissue with a periosteal elevator by blunt dissection.
After the anterior and posterior edge of the contracture bands were fully revealed, normal saline were filled in the space. With the monitor of arthroscope, the procedures were: removing fatty tissue from the surface of the contracture bands with motorized shaver, then cutting off the contracture bands curve and carefully probing and cutting off contracture bands which were mixed in gluteus maximus with radiofrequency probe, finally hemostasis by radiofrequency probe.
In the operation flexion, adduction, internal rotation and straightening hip joint were repeated, until it got normal range of motion without snap and bleeding. Results One hundred and one patients were followed up with an average of 19 months.
According to a comprehensive evaluating system, 91 cases were excellent, 7 were good, and 3 were fair. No infection. The aim of the study is to investigate both the single-dose intramuscular injection toxicity and the approximate lethal dose of water-soluble Carthami-flos and Cervi cornu parvum pharmacopuncture WCFC in male and female Sprague-Dawley SD rats. The study was conducted at Biotoxtech Co. Dosages for the control, high dose, middle dose and low dose groups were 0.
WCFC was injected into the muscle of the left femoral region by using a disposable syringe 1 mL, 26 gauge. The general symptoms and mortality were observed 30 minutes, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after the first injection and then daily for 14 days after the injection.
The body weights of the SD rats were measured on the day of the injection before injection and on the third, seventh, and fourteenth days after the injection. Serum biochemical and hematologic tests, necropsy examinations, and histopathologic examinations at the injection site were performed after the observation period.
No deaths, abnormal clinical symptoms, or significant weight changes were observed in either male or female SD rats in the control or the test 0. No significant differences in hematology and serum biochemistry and no macroscopic abnormalities at necropsy were found. No abnormal reactions at injection sites were noted on the topical tolerance tests. The results of this single-dose toxicity study show that WCFC is safe, its lethal doses in male and female SD rats being estimated to be higher than 0.
Intramuscular injection of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells improves cardiac function in dilated cardiomyopathy rats. Stem cells provide a promising candidate for the treatment of the fatal pediatric dilated cardiomyopathy DCM. This study aimed to investigate the effects of intramuscular injection of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells hUCMSCs on the cardiac function of a DCM rat model.
Furthermore, hUCMSCs protected the ultrastructure of cardiomyocytes by attenuating mitochondrial swelling and maintaining sarcolemma integrity. These effects may be mediated by regulation of relevant cytokines in serum and the myocardium. An year-old female with known hypothyroidism was admitted to hospital after being found on the floor.
On examination, she was unkempt, confused, bradycardic, hypothermic, and barely arousable. She was resuscitated and commenced on liothyronine, levothyroxine, and hydrocortisone and some improvement was made. It became apparent that she was hiding and spitting out her oral levothyroxine including levothyroxine elixir. Given the need for prompt alternative control, we sought advice from international experts where intramuscular levothyroxine was recommended.
Thyroid function normalized and she made continual cognitive and physical progress and was discharged to a rehabilitation hospital. Her intramuscular levothyroxine was stopped and she was subsequently restarted on oral levothyroxine, with a plan for on-going close monitoring of her thyroid function. This report highlights the potential to use intramuscular levothyroxine in individuals with severe hypothyroidism arising from poor compliance with levothyroxine treatment or other potential causes such as impaired absorption.
Efficacy of a single intramuscular injection of porcine FSH in hyaluronan prior to ovum pick-up in Holstein cattle. Plasma FSH profiles were determined in 23 heifers randomly allocated to one of four groups. Controls received no treatment, whereas the F group received mg of pFSH in four doses, 12 hours apart. All data were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts. Testosterone T is commonly administered intramuscularly to treat hypogonadal males and female-to-male FTM transgender patients.
However, these injections can involve significant discomfort and may require arrangements for administration by others. We assessed whether T could be administered effectively and safely subcutaneously as an alternative to intramuscular IM injections. Retrospective cohort study. Outpatient reproductive endocrinology clinic at an academic medical center.
Fifty-three patients were premenopausal. Patients were administered T cypionate or enanthate weekly at an initial dose of 50 mg. Dose was adjusted if needed to achieve serum total T levels within the normal male range.
Serum concentrations of free and total T and total estradiol E2 , masculinization, and surveillance for reactions at injection sites. Therapy was effective across a wide range of body mass index Minor and transient local reactions were reported in 9 out of 63 patients. Among 53 premenopausal patients, 51 achieved amenorrhea and 35 achieved serum E2 concentrations injections ; none preferred IM injections.
Our observations indicate that SC T injections are an effective, safe, and well-accepted alternative to IM T injections. Intramuscular injection of AAV8 in mice and macaques is associated with substantial hepatic targeting and transgene expression. Intramuscular IM administration of adeno-associated viral AAV vectors has entered the early stages of clinical development with some success, including the first approved gene therapy product in the West called Glybera.
In preparation for broader clinical development of IM AAV vector gene therapy, we conducted detailed pre-clinical studies in mice and macaques evaluating aspects of delivery that could affect performance. We found that following IM administration of AAV8 vectors in mice, a portion of the vector reached the liver and hepatic gene expression contributed significantly to total expression of secreted transgenes.
The contribution from liver could be controlled by altering injection volume and by the use of traditional promoter and non-traditional tissue-specific microRNA target sites expression control elements. Hepatic distribution of vector following IM injection was also noted in rhesus macaques. Electrophysiological characterization of the rat trigeminal caudalis Vc neurons following intramuscular injection of capsaicin. Extracellular single unit recording experiments were performed to examine response characteristics of wide dynamic range neurons in the Vc that receive masseter afferent input in Sprague Dawley rats.
Capsaicin, or its vehicle, was directly administered into the masseter muscle and changes in resting discharge, responses to mechanical stimulation on the cutaneous receptive field and the electrical threshold for masseter nerve stimulation were assessed. Intramuscular capsaicin induced significant increase in the background discharge and mechanical hypersensitivity to the cutaneous stimulation and lowered the threshold masseter nerve stimulation evoked responses in the majority of neurons.
The capsaicin-induced increase in evoked responses, but not the resting discharge, was partially attenuated when the muscle was pretreated with a mGluR antagonist. The present study suggests that injury or inflammation in the masseter muscle induce generalized hyperexcitability of central trigeminal neurons and that the blockade of peripherally localized mGluR5 can effectively attenuate muscular hypersensitivity. Daily penicillin serum concentrations following injection of 1.
In view of evidence suggesting that 1. Statistical evaluation of the results showed that the mean daily serum concentrations were, in fact, treponemicidal during the whole week after injection. The means of groups of 24 assays fell within narrow daily ranges on each of the seven post- injection days, suggesting that the long-acting component benzathine penicillin gives reliable and predictable daily levels in a high proportion of cases.
This is in contrast to those penicillins which rely for their long-acting property on the oily gel in which they are suspended. On the other hand, the extremes of penicillinaemia for any individual in a large group were shown to cover a very wide range, demonstrating that a particular patient's failure to respond to standard treatment or prophylaxis can be due to factors quite unrelated to the quality or specificity of the product or to the sensitivity of the organism causing disease.
Rubus occidentalis alleviates hyperalgesia induced by repeated intramuscular injection of acidic saline in rats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of black raspberry Rubus occidentalis fruit extract ROE in a rat model of chronic muscle pain and examine the mechanisms involved. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used, and chronic muscle pain was induced by two injections of acidic saline into one gastrocnemius muscle.
For the first experiment, 50 rats were randomly assigned to five groups. After the development of hyperalgesia, rats were injected intraperitoneally with 0. For the second experiment, 70 rats were randomly assigned to seven groups. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with saline, yohimbine, dexmedetomidine, prazosin, atropine, mecamylamine, or naloxone after the development of hyperalgesia. Pharmacokinetics of cefquinome in red-eared slider turtles Trachemys scripta elegans after single intravenous and intramuscular injections.
Plasma concentrations of CFQ were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and analyzed using noncompartmental methods. The pharmacokinetic parameters after IM injection were as follows: peak plasma concentration C max 3. Data suggest that CFQ has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile with a long half-life and a high bioavailability in red-eared slider turtles.
Further studies are needed to establish a multiple dosage regimen and evaluate clinical efficacy. Comparison of gene delivery techniques for therapeutic angiogenesis ultrasound-mediated destruction of carrier microbubbles versus direct intramuscular injection.
This study was designed to compare the efficacy of angiogenic gene delivery by ultrasound-mediated UM destruction of intravenous carrier microbubbles to direct intramuscular IM injections. Current trials of gene therapy for angiogenesis remain limited by suboptimal, invasive delivery techniques. Hind-limb ischemia was produced by iliac artery ligation in 99 rats. Remaining rats received no treatment.
Total transfection was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and localization of transfection was determined by immunohistochemistry. The UM delivery results in directed vascular transfection over a wider distribution, which may account for the more efficient angiogenesis. Impact of an experimental PRRSV and Streptococcus suis coinfection on the pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur hydrochloride after intramuscular injection in pigs. This study determined the impact of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus PRRSV and Streptococcus suis coinfection on the pharmacokinetic PK profile of ceftiofur hydrochloride in pigs after intramuscular i.
Eighteen clinically normal crossbred gilts were assigned by weight into a challenge group 10 pigs and control group eight pigs. Pigs in both groups received a single i. Serial blood samples were collected to characterize the plasma concentration curve. When clinical disease was evident, the second PK assessment began in both challenge and control groups. The data from this study have implications on ceftiofur treatment regimens in diseased pigs.
Immunogenicity and safety of concomitant administration of a measles, mumps and rubella vaccine M-M-RvaxPro and a varicella vaccine VARIVAX by intramuscular or subcutaneous routes at separate injection sites: a randomised clinical trial. When this trial was initiated, the combined measles, mumps and rubella MMR vaccine was licensed for subcutaneous administration in all European countries and for intramuscular administration in some countries, whereas varicella vaccine was licensed only for subcutaneous administration.
An open-label randomised trial was performed in France and Germany. Immunogenicity was assessed before vaccination and 42 days after vaccination. It was difficult to differenciate ovarian tumors on the basis of the density of the tumor or calcification in the wall of the tumor. Cystic teratomas were diagnosed quite accurately in all cases because of its specific CT findings. Differenciation of endometriosis cysts of the ovary was difficult from degenerated uterine myoma.
Prediction of endometriosis by transvaginal ultrasound in reproductive-age women with normal ovarian size. Objective: To predict endometriosis by transvaginal ultrasound TVS in reproductive-age women with normal ovarian size. Design: Prospective study. Patients: Women with symptoms suggestive of endometriosis and with normal ovarian size during TVS. Interventions: Patients were subjected to high frequency ultrasound and evaluated for the presence of ultrasound signs of endometriosis TVS-based soft markers.
All patien Alfa-fetoprotein secreting ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor. They are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms composed of cells derived from gonadal sex cords granulosa and Sertoli cells, specialized gonadal stroma theca and Leydig cells, and fibroblasts. They may show androgenic or estrogenic manifestations. We report such a tumor associated with markedly raised serum alpha-fetoprotein AFP levels in a young female presenting with a mass and defeminising symptoms.
Serum AFP levels returned to normal on removal of tumor. Pelvic inflammatory disease and risk of invasive ovarian cancer and ovarian borderline tumors. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to examine the potential association between a history of pelvic inflammatory disease PID and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer or ovarian borderline tumors.
The analyses were performed in multiple logistic regression models. Ovarian granulosa cell tumors : histopathology, immunopathology and prognosis. As the name indicates, they are composed of granulosa cells but may also contain an admixture of theca cells. They are potentially malignant but, except for extraovarian spread, which is generally agreed. Serum level of tumor marker CA in ovarian pathology.
The tumor marker CA is an embrional glycoprotein detectable in tissues derived from celomatic epitelium. Six patients with ovarian carcinoma were monitored during the first week after surgery and chemiotherapy for a total of days of treatment. In benign pathology, levels above the normal were found to be represented almost exclusively by ovarian endometriosis. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that chemiotherapy alone is capable of lowering CA serum levels.
This tumor marker may be of great advantage in diagnosis and follow-up of ovarian malignancy. Prediction of polycystic ovarian syndrome based on ultrasound findings and clinical parameters. To determine the accuracy of sonographic-diagnosed polycystic ovaries and clinical parameters in predicting polycystic ovarian syndrome.
Medical records and ultrasounds of women with sonographically diagnosed polycystic ovaries were reviewed. Clinical variables of age, gravidity, ethnicity, body mass index, and sonographic indication were collected. Pain decreased the likelihood of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Polycystic ovaries on ultrasound were sensitive in predicting polycystic ovarian syndrome. Ultrasound , combined with clinical parameters, can be used to generate a predictive index for polycystic ovarian syndrome.
To evaluate the usefullness of examination of methylation status of selected tumor -supressor genes in early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Prospective clinical study. In this study we analyzed hypermethylation of 5 genes RASSF1A, GSTP, E-cadherin, p16 and APC in ovarian tumor samples from 34 patients - 13 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, 2 patients with border-line ovarian tumors , 12 patients with benign lesions of ovaries and 7 patients with healthy ovarian tissue.
The methylation status of promoter region of tumor -supressor genes was determined by Methylation Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction MSP using a nested two-step approach with bisulfite modified DNA template and specific primers. Ecad, p16 and APC genes were methylated both in maignant and benign tissue samples. Methylation positivity in observed genes was present independently to all clinical stages of ovarian cancer and to tumor grades. However, there was observed a trend of increased number and selective involvement of methylated genes with increasing disease stages.
Furthermore, there was no association between positive methylation status and histological subtypes of ovarian carcinomas. The revealed gene-selective methylation positivity and the increased number of methylated genes with advancing disease stages could be considered as a useful molecular marker for early detection of ovarian cancer. However, there is need to find diagnostic approach of specifically and frequently methylated genes to determining a methylation phenotype for early detection of ovarian malignancies.
Ovarian steroid cell tumor in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a case report. Full Text Available Background: Steroid cell tumor is one of the rare ovarian tumors and forms 0. One of the most known signs of this tumor is hormonal function, especially androgenic effects of it.
Primary treatment consists of eradication of tumor via surgery. Case presentation: The patient is a 29 years old female with history of poly cystic ovarian syndrome since 10 years ago, who attended to the clinic of General Women Hospital of Tehran in January She underwent laparotomy and unilateral salpingoophorectomy was done. Pathological report was steroid cell tumor of ovary. Conclusion: The aim of this study is reporting one of the rare tumors of ovary and assessment of the correct way of diagnosis and treatment of it.
The relevance of this pathway to human ovarian cancer remains unknown. Competing risks Cox regression was used to evaluate whether associations of reproductive, hormonal, and psychosocial factors with ovarian cancer risk differed by ADRB2.
We also examined the association between tumor ADRB2 expression and ovarian cancer survival. We observed similar results for depression. No associations were observed for job strain, caregiving stress, or widowhood for either positive or negative ADRB2 status. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25 12 ; Interlaced photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system with real-time coregistration for ovarian tissue characterization.
Coregistered ultrasound US and photoacoustic imaging are emerging techniques for mapping the echogenic anatomical structure of tissue and its corresponding optical absorption. We report a channel imaging system with real-time coregistration of the two modalities, which provides up to 15 coregistered frames per second limited by the laser pulse repetition rate.
In addition, the system integrates a compact transvaginal imaging probe with a custom-designed fiber optic assembly for in vivo detection and characterization of human ovarian tissue. We present the coregistered US and photoacoustic imaging system structure, the optimal design of the PC interfacing software, and the reconfigurable field programmable gate array operation and optimization.
Phantom experiments of system lateral resolution and axial sensitivity evaluation, examples of the real-time scanning of a tumor -bearing mouse, and ex vivo human ovaries studies are demonstrated. A rare ovarian tumor , leydig stromal cell tumor , presenting with virilization: a case report. They produce testosterone leading to hyperandrogenism. We present a 41yr old woman with symptoms of virilization and a mass of right adenex via ultra Sonography, and a rise of total and free serum testosterone.
An ovarian source of androgen was suspected and a surgery performed. A diagnosis of leydig-stromal cell tumor was confirmed. Our report is a reminder that although idiopathic hirsutism and other benign androgen excess disorder like Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome PCOs are common, ovarian mass should be considered in differential diagnosis.
Materials and Methods: It was a retrospective observational study. The study was conducted in. Department of Pathology, B. All the histopathology slides of MRI findings of uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor : A case report. Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor is a very rare uterine neoplasm that was first described by Clement and Scully in Since then, approximately 70 cases have been reported. However, these case reports have mainly described and discussed the pathologic and clinical features, and few radiologic findings have been presented.
We experienced a case of a uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor , which was considered a uterine leiomyoma or leiomyosarcoma upon initial impression at preoperative evaluation including transvaginal ultrasonography and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging. Its diagnosis was pathologically confirmed after total abdominal hysterectomy. Estrogen receptor beta, a possible tumor suppressor involved in ovarian carcinogenesis.
Ovarian cancer is one of the leading cause of death from gynecological tumors in women. Ovarian cancer is one of the common cancers in women and is diagnosed at later stage in majority. The limiting factor for early diagnosis is lack of standardized terms and procedures in gynaecological sonography.
Introduction of IOTA rules has provided some consistency in defining morphological features of ovarian masses through a standardized examination technique. To evaluate the efficacy of IOTA simple ultrasound rules in distinguishing benign and malignant ovarian tumours and establishing their use as a tool in early diagnosis of ovarian malignancy. A hospital based case control prospective study was conducted. Patients with suspected ovarian pathology were evaluated using IOTA ultrasound rules and designated as benign or malignant.
Findings were correlated with histopathological findings. Collected data was statistically analysed using chi-square test and kappa statistical method. Out of initial 55 patients, 50 patients were included in the final analysis who underwent surgery. The sensitivity for the detection of malignancy in cases where IOTA simple rules were applicable was Accuracy was High level of agreement was found between USG and histopathological diagnosis with Kappa value as 0.
IOTA simple ultrasound rules were highly sensitive and specific in predicting ovarian malignancy preoperatively yet being reproducible, easy to train and use. Early inflammatory response in epithelial ovarian tumor cyst fluids. Mortality rates for epithelial ovarian cancer EOC are high, mainly due to late-stage diagnosis.
The identification of biomarkers for this cancer could contribute to earlier diagnosis and increased survival rates. Given that chronic inflammation plays a central role in cancer initiation and progression, we selected and tested 15 cancer-related cytokines and growth factors in 38 ovarian cyst fluid samples. We used ovarian cyst fluid since it is found in proximity to the pathology and mined it for inflammatory biomarkers suitable for early detection of EOC.
Immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sample fractionation were obtained by using tandem antibody libraries bead and mass spectrometry. CA was measured in serum from all patients and used in the algorithms performed. Significant P tumor environment and we conclude that ovarian cyst fluid is a promising source in the search for new biomarkers for early ovarian tumors.
Ultrasound study of ovarian pain in pre adolescent and adolescent girls. To assess the role of ultrasound in the study of acute ovarian pain in pre adolescent and adolescent girls. B-mode ultrasound was employed to study 40 ovarian lesions in 37 girls between the age of 6 and 17 years complaining of acute pelvic pain of ovarian origin.
Thirteen of the lesions were also assessed by color Doppler ultrasound. We found 25 cases of hemorrhagic cysts, 8 of simple cyst and 7 of ovarian torsion. Surgical and pathological correlation was established in 17 cases 7 cases hemorrhagic cyst, 3 of simple cysts and 7 of ovarian torsion. The remaining lesions are being followed by clinical and ultrasonographic monitoring.
Simple and hemorrhagic cysts presenting the so called hematocrit effect are easily diagnosed by B-mode ultrasound. The ultrasonographic features of torsion and certain hemorrhagic cysts are similar on occasion, and surgery and histologic assessment are necessary for the definitive diagnosis. Doppler ultrasound provides no additional information to aid in the diagnosis of these lesions. Author 28 refs. Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous elements of gastrointestinal type associated with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein level: an unusual case and literature review.
Here we describe the case of a year-old woman with a poorly differentiated ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor and an elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein level. The patient presented with diffuse abdominal pain and bloating. Physical examination, ultrasound , and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right ovarian tumor that was histopathologically diagnosed as a poorly differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous elements.
Her alpha-fetoprotein serum level was undetectable after tumor resection. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors are rare sex cord-stromal tumors that account for 0. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors tend to be unilateral and occur in women under 30 years of age. Elevated serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein are rarely associated with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors , with only approximately 30 such cases previously reported in the literature. The differential diagnosis should include common alpha-fetoprotein-producing ovarian entities such as germ cell tumors , as well as other non-germ cell tumors that have been rarely reported to produce this tumor marker.
Ultrasound -- Pelvis. Full Text Available Integrated genomics of ovarian xenograft tumor progression and chemotherapy response. Ovarian cancer is the most deadly gynecological cancer with a very poor prognosis. Xenograft mouse models have proven to be one very useful tool in testing candidate therapeutic agents and gene function in vivo. In this study we identify genes and gene networks important for the efficacy of a pre-clinical anti- tumor therapeutic, MT19c.
In order to understand how ovarian xenograft tumors may be growing and responding to anti- tumor therapeutics, we used genome-wide mRNA expression and DNA copy number measurements to identify key genes and pathways that may be critical for SKOV-3 xenograft tumor progression. We compared SKOV-3 xenografts treated with the ergocalciferol derived, MT19c, to untreated tumors collected at multiple time points.
These data indicate that a number of known survival and growth pathways including Notch signaling and general apoptosis factors are differentially expressed in treated vs. As tumors grow, cell cycle and DNA replication genes show increased expression, consistent with faster growth. To identify which genes may be important for tumor growth and treatment response, we observed that MT19c down-regulates some high copy number genes and stimulates expression of some low copy number genes suggesting that these genes are particularly important for SKOV-3 xenograft growth and survival.
We have characterized the time dependent responses of ovarian xenograft tumors to the vitamin D analog, MT19c. We propose that a combination of regulated expression and copy number. New treatment options Combination chemotherapy the use of more than one Evidence for ovarian tumor necrosis factor. Ovarian folliculogenesis and luteal formation occur concomitantly with the development of new blood vessels that function in nutritional support of the developing follicles.
As follicles undergo atresia and the corpus luteum regresses, blood vessels supplying these tissues degenerate. The first study determined if the ovary contained factors that might regulate ovarian angiogenesis. The bovine ovary was subjected to ammonium sulfate AS precipitation and the precipitates ppt. TNF was immunohistochemically localized in the human, bovine and rat ovary. Frozen sections were incubated with polyclonal antibody to human recombinant TNF.
Antigen-antibody binding was visualized using a Biotin-StreptAvidin peroxidase technique. In order to determine whether TNF had an effect on follicular steroidogenesis, preovulatory follicles from cyclic proestrus rats were incubated in vitro for up to 24 hours with various doses of human recombinant TNF.
Stepwise increases in progesterone P accumulation in the incubation media were observed with pM TNF. A gastrointestinal stromal tumor GIST masquerading as an ovarian mass. Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumors GIST are rare mesenchymal tumors originating in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. Myogenic gastrointestinal stromal tumor , a distinctive morphologic variant is characterized by an unusually prominent myxoid stromal background.
Case presentation We report a case of myxoid variant of GIST in a 42 years old woman presenting as an epigastric mass associated to an ovarian cyst and elevated CA Histologically, the lesions was composed of a proliferation of spindle cells in an abundant myxoid stroma, without evidence of atypia or anaplasia. Immunohistochemical stains showed strong positive staining with muscle actin, positive staining with CD34 and weak positive staining with CD, while showed negative for S Conclusion At surgery every effort should be made to identify the origin of the tumor.
A complete surgical removal of the tumor should be obtained, as this is the only established treatment that offers long term survival. Degenerated uterine leiomyomas mimicking malignant bilateral ovarian surface epithelial tumors. Uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign uterine neoplasms. Undegenerated uterine leiomyomas are easily recognizable by the typical imaging findings on radiologic studies.
However, degenerated fibroids can have unusual and variable appearances. The atypical appearances due to degenerative changes may cause confusion in diagnosis of leiomyomas. In this article, we report a case of a patient with extensive cystic and myxoid degeneration of uterine leiomyoma, mimicking malignant bilateral ovarian surface epithelial tumors. DNA methylation profiles of ovarian epithelial carcinoma tumors and cell lines. Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is a significant cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide and in the United States.
Epithelial ovarian cancer comprises several histological subtypes, each with distinct clinical and molecular characteristics. The natural history of this heterogeneous disease, including the cell types of origin, is poorly understood. This study applied recently developed methods for high-throughput DNA methylation profiling to characterize ovarian cancer cell lines and tumors , including representatives of three major histologies.
We obtained DNA methylation profiles of 1, CpG sites genes in 27 primary epithelial ovarian tumors and 15 ovarian cancer cell lines. We found that the DNA methylation profiles of ovarian cancer cell lines were markedly different from those of primary ovarian tumors. Aggregate DNA methylation levels of the assayed CpG sites tended to be higher in ovarian cancer cell lines relative to ovarian tumors.
Within the primary tumors , those of the same histological type were more alike in their methylation profiles than those of different subtypes. The significant difference in DNA methylation profiles between ovarian cancer cell lines and tumors underscores the need to be cautious in using cell lines as tumor models for molecular studies of ovarian cancer and other cancers.
Similarly, the distinct methylation profiles of the different histological types of ovarian tumors reinforces the need to treat the different histologies of ovarian cancer as different diseases, both clinically and in biomarker studies. These data provide a useful resource for future studies, including those of.
Novel near-diploid ovarian cancer cell line derived from a highly aneuploid metastatic ovarian tumor. Full Text Available A new ovarian near-diploid cell line, OVDM1, was derived from a highly aneuploid serous ovarian metastatic adenocarcinoma. A metastatic tumor was obtained from a year-old Ashkenazi Jewish patient three years after the first surgery removed the primary tumor , both ovaries, and the remaining reproductive organs.
OVDM1 was characterized by cell morphology, genotyping, tumorigenic assay, mycoplasma testing, spectral karyotyping SKY, and molecular profiling of the whole genome by aCGH and gene expression microarray. Targeted sequencing of a panel of cancer-related genes was also performed. Hierarchical clustering of gene expression data clearly confirmed the ovarian origin of the cell line.
OVDM1 has a near-diploid karyotype with a low-level aneuploidy, but samples of the original metastatic tumor were grossly aneuploid. Progression of OVDM1 from early to late passages was accompanied by preservation of the near-diploid status, acquisition of only few additional large chromosomal rearrangements and more than new small FCNAs.
IOTA simple rules in differentiating between benign and malignant ovarian tumors. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of IOTA simple rules in differentiating between benign and malignant ovarian tumors. A study of diagnostic performance was conducted on women scheduled for elective surgery due to ovarian masses between March and March All patients underwent ultrasound examination for IOTA simple rules within 24 hours of surgery.
All examinations were performed by the authors, who had no any clinical information of the patients, to differentiate between benign and malignant adnexal masses using IOTA simple rules. Gold standard diagnosis was based on pathological or operative findings. A total of adnexal masses, in women, were available for analysis. Of them, the IOTA simple rules could be applied in The simple rules yielded inconclusive results in 79 In the masses for which the IOTA simple rules could be applied, sensitivity was The IOTA simple rules have high diagnostic performance in differentiating between benign and malignant adnexal masses.
Nevertheless, inconclusive results are relatively common. Paraneoplastic neurological disorders in children with benign ovarian tumors. Paraneoplastic neurological diseases PND are rare, but potentially treatable disorders. Paraneoplastic encephalitis is rapidly emerging as an important but likely under-recognized condition in children. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and spectrum of PND in children with benign ovary tumor and the long-term outcome. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all female patients below 18years of age diagnosed with a benign ovarian tumor proven by pathology between January and December All the clinical symptoms developed within 5years of tumor diagnosis and the related investigations were recorded.
There were total children and adolescents with benign ovarian tumors , mostly mature teratoma. Six patients 4. Three patients 2. Although all of three improved after tumor removal, one without immunotherapy had neurological sequelae and prolonged ICU stay. The prevalence of PND in benign ovary tumor is not so uncommon in children. It is important to survey ovary tumors in female adolescents with subacute presentation of multiple-level involvement of neuraxis where no clear alternate diagnosis is possible.
Treatment of serious PND associated with ovary tumors should include immunotherapy in addition to tumor removal. Published by Elsevier B. Borderline tumors were split between the two clusters. Significant correlations between the malignant serous tumors and the highly aggressive ovarian cancer signatures, and the basal The high-resolution ultrasound has taken to discover small ovary cysts in postmenopausal asymptomatic women who in another situation would not been detected; these cysts frequently disappear spontaneously and rarely develop cancer; however, they are treated aggressively.
To know the prevalence, evolution and treatment of ovary simple cysts in the postmenopausal women in our department, since in our country there are not studies that had analyzed these data. We made a retrospective and descriptive study in the Service of Biology of the Human Reproduction of the Hospital Juarez de Mexico, in a four-year period that included 1, postmenopausal women.
The statistical analysis was made using the SPSS software program with which we obtained descriptive measurements in localization, dispersion and by a graphic analysis. We found a simple cysts prevalence of 8. Surgery was indicated in Tumor like markers were made only to 37 patients The prevalence of ovary simple cysts was similar to the reported in literature. Risk of cancer of these cysts is extremely low when a suitable evaluation is made, a reason why the conservative treatment is suggested when these are simple cysts lesser than 5cm with Ca levels within normal ranks.
We recommend a follow up every months by Doppler color ultrasound and tumor like markers for five years. Results: The study results showed that the CD31 angiogenic factor was expressed more in the irradiated animals than in control group animals and ultrasound -therapy resulted in better follicular preservation. Conclusion: The ultrasound therapy can improve preservation of ovarian follicle. This is probably due to acceleration of angiogenesis and increase in production of growth factors by low intensity pulse ultrasound.
Serum tumor marker CA for monitoring ovarian cancer during follow-up. CA is currently widely applied in the management of patients with ovarian cancer. However, a change in results of CA , which should be considered significant, has not been defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of CA to signal progressive ovarian cancer during fo Aim To evaluate the efficacy of IOTA simple ultrasound rules in distinguishing benign and malignant ovarian tumours and establishing their use as a tool in early diagnosis of ovarian malignancy.
Materials and Methods A hospital based case control prospective study was conducted. Results Out of initial 55 patients, 50 patients were included in the final analysis who underwent surgery. Conclusion IOTA simple ultrasound rules were highly sensitive and specific in predicting ovarian malignancy preoperatively yet being reproducible, easy to train and use.
Radiologic findings of malignant tumors arising from ovarian endometriosis. To determine the radiologic characteristics of malignant tumors arising from ovarian endometriosis. The radiologic findings of eleven patients with pelvic masses histologically confirmed as malignant ovarian tumors arising from endometriosis were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent MR, and six underwent ultrasonography. The findings were evaluated with regard to tumor size and shape, locularity, thickness and enhancement of the wall and septa, the presence of papillary nodule or solid portion, signal intensity of the locule, the presence of mass in contralateral ovary, ascites, local invasion, distant metastases, and the Pathologic diagnosis included clear cell carcinoma in six cases, endometrioid carcinoma in three, and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of borderline malignancy and endometrial stromal sarcoma in one case each.
Tumor size ranged from 8 to 20 mean, The tumors were mixed in four cases, entirely cystic in three, predominantly cystic in three, and predominantly solid in one. Six cases were unilocular and five were multilocular. The wall and septa varied in thickness and regularity and were well enhanced in all but one case.
In all cases papillary nodules or solid portions with similar enhancement to uterine myometrium were seen. On T1WI, the signal intensity of fluid was seen to be high in eight cases, low or intermediate in two, and of differing intensity in one.
Ten cases showed high signal intensity on T2WI, whereas in one case in which high signal intensity was seen on T1WI, there was low signal intensity shading. In three cases the contralateral ovary contained an endometrioma. Other features included ascites in seven cases and peritoneal seeding in one.
Malignant ovarian tumors arising from endometriosis showed radiologic features of malignancy:they were larger than 10cm, there was enhancement of the wall and septa, and a papillary nodule or solid portion was present. However, the presence of hyperintense fluid, as seen on T1WI. College of Medicine, Seoul Korea, Republic of. Ovarian tumor -initiating cells display a flexible metabolism.
Anderson, Angela S. An altered metabolism during ovarian cancer progression allows for increased macromolecular synthesis and unrestrained growth. However, the metabolic phenotype of cancer stem or tumor -initiating cells, small tumor cell populations that are able to recapitulate the original tumor , has not been well characterized. TICs exhibit a decrease in glucose and fatty acid oxidation with a concomitant increase in lactate secretion.
Together, our data show that TICs have a distinct metabolic profile that may render them flexible to adapt to the specific conditions of their microenvironment. By better understanding their metabolic phenotype and external environmental conditions that support their survival, treatment interventions can be designed to extend current therapy regimens to eradicate TICs. Recognition algorithm for assisting ovarian cancer diagnosis from coregistered ultrasound and photoacoustic images: ex vivo study.
Unique features and the underlining hypotheses of how these features may relate to the tumor physiology in coregistered ultrasound and photoacoustic images of ex vivo ovarian tissue are introduced. The images were first compressed with wavelet transform. The mean Radon transform of photoacoustic images was then computed and fitted with a Gaussian function to find the centroid of a suspicious area for shift-invariant recognition process.
Twenty-four features were extracted from a training set by several methods, including Fourier transform, image statistics, and different composite filters. The features were chosen from more than training images obtained from 33 ex vivo ovaries of 24 patients, and used to train three classifiers, including generalized linear model, neural network, and support vector machine SVM.
At the end, the classifiers were used to test 95 new images obtained from 37 ovaries of 20 additional patients. The SVM classifier achieved Localization of liver tumors in freehand 3D laparoscopic ultrasound. The aim of minimally invasive laparoscopic liver interventions is to completely resect or ablate tumors while minimizing the trauma caused by the operation.
However, restrictions such as limited field of view and reduced depth perception can hinder the surgeon's capabilities to precisely localize the tumor. Typically, preoperative data is acquired to find the tumor s and plan the surgery.
Nevertheless, determining the precise position of the tumor is required, not only before but also during the operation. The standard use of ultrasound in hepatic surgery is to explore the liver and identify tumors. Meanwhile, the surgeon mentally builds a 3D context to localize tumors.
This work aims to upgrade the use of ultrasound in laparoscopic liver surgery. We propose an approach to segment and localize tumors intra-operatively in 3D ultrasound. We reconstruct a 3D laparoscopic ultrasound volume containing a tumor. The 3D image is then preprocessed and semi-automatically segmented using a level set algorithm.
During the surgery, for each subsequent reconstructed volume, a fast update of the tumor position is accomplished via registration using the previously segmented and localized tumor as a prior knowledge. The approach was tested on a liver phantom with artificial tumors.
The tumors were localized in approximately two seconds with a mean error of less than 0. The strengths of this technique are that it can be performed intra-operatively, it helps the surgeon to accurately determine the location, shape and volume of the tumor , and it is repeatable throughout the operation. Isolation and characterization of tumor cells from the ascites of ovarian cancer patients: molecular phenotype of chemoresistant ovarian tumors.
Full Text Available Tumor cells in ascites are a major source of disease recurrence in ovarian cancer patients. In an attempt to identify and profile the population of ascites cells obtained from ovarian cancer patients, a novel method was developed to separate adherent AD and non-adherent NAD cells in culture.
Twenty-five patients were recruited to this study; 11 chemonaive CN and 14 chemoresistant CR. AD cells from both CN and CR patients exhibited mesenchymal morphology with an antigen profile of mesenchymal stem cells and fibroblasts. NAD cells developed infiltrating tumors and ascites within weeks after intraperitoneal i. Hence, using a novel purification method we demonstrate for the first time a distinct separation of ascites cells into epithelial tumorigenic and mesenchymal non-tumorigenic populations.
We also demonstrate that cells from the ascites of CR patients are predominantly epithelial and show a trend towards increased mRNA expression of genes associated with CSCs, compared to cells isolated from the ascites of CN patients. As the tumor cells in the ascites of ovarian cancer patients play a dominant role in disease recurrence, a thorough understanding of the biology of the ascites microenvironment from CR and CN patients is essential for effective therapeutic interventions.
High-resolution ultrasound biomicroscopy for monitoring ovarian structures in mice. Full Text Available Abstract Background Until recently, the limit of spatial resolution of ultrasound systems has prevented characterization of structures Methods Experiment 1 was a pilot study to develop methods of immobilization physical restraint vs.
The hair coat was removed over the thoraco-lumber area using depilation cream, and a highly viscous acoustic gel was applied while the animals were maintained in sternal recumbency. In Experiment 2, changes in ovarian structures during the estrous cycle were monitored by twice daily ultrasonography in 10 mice for 2 estrous cycles.
Results Ovarian images were not distinct in rats due to attenuation of ultrasound waves. Physical restraint, without general anesthesia, was insufficient for immobilization in mice. By placing the transducer face over the dorsal flank, the kidney was visualized initially as a point of reference. A routine of moving the transducer a few millimetres caudo-laterally from the kidney was established to quickly and consistently localize the ovaries; the total time to scan both ovaries in a mouse was about 10 minutes.
By comparing vaginal cytology with non-anesthetized controls, repeated exposure to anesthesia did not affect the estrous cycle. Conclusion The mouse is a suitable model for the study of ovarian dynamics using transcutaneous ultrasound bio-microscopy. Repeated general anesthesia for examination had no apparent effect on the estrous cycle, and preliminary results revealed a wave-like pattern of ovarian follicle development in mice.
Inflammation has been implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis. However, studies investigating the association between pelvic inflammatory disease PID and ovarian cancer risk are few and inconsistent. We investigated the association between PID and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer according to We performed a retrospective matched controlled study of females with various PCOS phenotypes and 47 matched controls. The diagnostic utility of AMH measurement and ovarian ultrasound were compared.
However, FNPO was highly sensitive in all phenotypes, and was the single best criterion assessed for all subjects, suggesting the important role of ultrasound. Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate clinical pecuiliarities of ovarian tumors in colon cancer patients and determination of complex diagnostic methods. Subject and methods. Russian N. Colon cancer patients with ovarian metastases and with synchronous or metachronous tumors were included.
Ovarian tumors were diagnosed during the 1 year in 74 Patients in group 2 less frequently had children 9 The impact of in situ methotrexate injection after transvaginal ultrasound -guided aspiration of ovarian endometriomas on ovarian response and reproductive outcomes during IVF-cycles.
Conclusion s: In situ methotrexate injection after transvaginal ultrasound -guided aspiration was a simple, safe and successful method for treating ovarian endometriomas with minimal effects on ovarian response. Short term effects on reproductive outcomes, risk of fetal loss or anomaly were minimal.
Six months was enough as washout period of the drug prior to conception and was advisable to prevent the small chance of chromosomal abnormalities in the offspring. Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound for Non- tumor Liver Diseases. Full Text Available Contrast-enhanced ultrasound CEUS is a simple, safe and reliable technique for the clinical management of patients with various liver diseases.
Although the major target of the technique may be focal hepatic lesions, it is also effective for the diagnosis of non- tumor liver diseases, such as grading hepatic fibrosis, characterization of chronic liver diseases and diagnosis of portal vein thrombosis. This review article aimed to overview the recent application of CEUS in the assessment of non- tumor liver diseases.
Keywords: Cirrhosis, contrast agent, fibrosis, idiopathic portal hypertension, microbubble, portal vein thrombosis, ultrasound. Full Text Available A comprehensive examination was made in 93 patients, including 18 children, with tumors of the optic nerve ON. Duplex ultrasound scanning was performed in 39 patients, of them there were 11 patients with ON gliomas and 28 with ON meningiomas. The specific computed tomographic and echographic signs of ON glioma and meningiomas were detected.
The studies have shown that duplex ultrasound scanning and structural computed tomography of orbital sockets are highly informative complementary imaging procedures for ON tumors , which permits one to make their correct diagnosis, to specify surgical volume, and to plan adequate treatment. The accuracy of CT and tumor markers in the detection of a recurrent ovarian carcinoma.
The tumor markers predict the clinical outcome more accurately than the CT scan. Further, the tumor markers showed a clear correlation with the clinical course. But in one case, however, the tumor markers were seen to reduce below the normal level from chemotherapy, while the CT scan showed a tumor mass.
Thus, both, a CT scan and tumor marker assays are felt to be indispensable for detecting the recurrence of an ovarian cancer. Ultrasound -guided interventional therapy for recurrent ovarian chocolate cysts. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of ultrasound -guided interventional therapy in the treatment of postoperative recurrent chocolate cysts. The patients enrolled in this study were divided into three groups.
In group 1, the saline washing group, the cavity of the cyst was washed thoroughly with warm saline. Ten minutes later, the rest of the ethanol was aspirated. An ultrasound examination was performed in the third, sixth and 12th months after therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. Expression of FK binding protein 65 FKBP65 is decreased in epithelial ovarian cancer cells compared to benign tumor cells and to ovarian epithelium.
We performed the present study to reveal how FKBP65 is expressed in the ovary and in ovarian tumors and to see if this expression might be related to ovarian tumor development, a relationship we have found in colorectal cancer.
Biopsies from The expression was compared to survival and several clinicopathological parameters. FKBP65 is strongly expressed in ovarian epithelium and in benign In the ovary, a positive staining was also found in endothelial cells of blood vessels. In non-invasive and in invasive malignant tumor cells, a decreased staining was observed, which was not correlated to stage, histology, or survival. A significant inversed correlation to expression Full Text Available Aberrant methylation of multiple promoter CpG islands could be related to the biology of ovarian tumors and its determination could help to improve treatment strategies.
Promoter regions of 41 genes were analyzed in ovarian tumors and 17 normal ovarian samples. Ovarian tumors had methylation profiles that were more heterogeneous than other epithelial cancers. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering identified four groups that are very close to the histological subtypes of ovarian tumors.
Our study of DNA methylation profiling indicates that the different histotypes of ovarian cancer should be treated as separate diseases both clinically and in research for the development of targeted therapies. Full Text Available Little is known about the behavior of the ovarian surface epithelium OSE, which plays a central role in ovarian cancer etiology.
It has been suggested that incessant ovulation causes OSE changes leading to transformation and that high gonadotropin levels during postmenopause activate OSE receptors, inducing proliferation. We examined the chronology of OSE changes, including tumor appearance, in a mouse model where ovulation never occurs due to deletion of follitropin receptor. Changes in epithelial cells were marked by pan-cytokeratin CK staining. CK staining was observed inside the ovary by 24 days and increased thereafter in tumor -bearing animals.
Ovaries from a third of aged 1 year mutant mice showed CK deep inside, indicating cell migration. These tumors resembled serous papillary adenoma of human ovaries. Our results suggest that neither incessant ovulation nor follicle-stimulating hormone receptor presence in the OSE is required for inducing ovarian tumors ; thus, other mechanisms must contribute to ovarian tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the performance of different ultrasound -based International Ovarian Tumor Analysis IOTA strategies and subjective assessment for the diagnosis of early stage ovarian malignancy.
This is a secondary analysis of a prospective multicenter cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study that included patients recruited at 18 centers from to All patients underwent standardized transvaginal ultrasonography by experienced ultrasound investigators.
Reference standard was histology after surgery. Subjective assessment had a sensitivity and specificity of This study shows that all three IOTA strategies have good ability to discriminate between stage I-II ovarian malignancy and benign disease. Quantitative ultrasound characterization of tumor cell death: ultrasound -stimulated microbubbles for radiation enhancement.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of quantitative ultrasound imaging in characterizing cancer cell death caused by enhanced radiation treatments. This investigation focused on developing this ultrasound modality as an imaging-based non-invasive method that can be used to monitor therapeutic ultrasound and radiation effects. High-frequency 25 MHz ultrasound was used to image tumor responses caused by ultrasound -stimulated microbubbles in combination with radiation.
Tumors were imaged prior to treatment and 24 hours after treatment. Spectral analysis of images acquired from treated tumors revealed overall increases in ultrasound backscatter intensity and the spectral intercept parameter.
The increase in backscatter intensity compared to the control ranged from 1. In parallel, in situ end-labelling ISEL staining, ceramide, and cyclophilin A staining demonstrated increases in cell death due to DNA fragmentation, ceramide-mediated apoptosis, and release of cyclophilin A as a result of cell membrane permeabilization, respectively. Quantitative ultrasound results indicated changes that paralleled increases in cell death observed from histology analyses supporting its use for non-invasive monitoring of cancer treatment outcomes.
Copy number variation analysis of matched ovarian primary tumors and peritoneal metastasis. Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the most deadly gynecological cancer. The high rate of mortality is due to the large tumor burden with extensive metastatic lesion of the abdominal cavity.
Despite initial chemosensitivity and improved surgical procedures, abdominal recurrence remains an issue and results in patients' poor prognosis. Transcriptomic and genetic studies have revealed significant genome pathologies in the primary tumors and yielded important information regarding carcinogenesis. There are, however, few studies on genetic alterations and their consequences in peritoneal metastatic tumors when compared to their matched ovarian primary tumors. We used high-density SNP arrays to investigate copy number variations in matched primary and metastatic ovarian cancer from 9 patients.
Here we show that copy number variations acquired by ovarian tumors are significantly different between matched primary and metastatic tumors and these are likely due to different functional requirements. While many have shown complex involvement of cytokines in the ovarian cancer environment we provide evidence that ovarian tumors have specific copy number variation differences in many of these genes.
Distribution of Microsatellite instability in Danish ovarian tumor patients and the prognostic value in ovarian cancer patients. Most MSI studies including OC patients have involved relatively small number of tumors , a wide range of different MSI markers, different patient characteristics, and varying criteria for defin Prognostic significance of cytosolic pS2 content in ovarian tumors. Raigoso, P. Aim: pS2 is an estrogen regulated peptide which has been associated with a good prognosis an with a more favorable response to treatment in breast cancer patients.
In ovarian tumors , the expression of pS2 was demonstrated at both mRNA and protein levels. In addition, it has been showed significant association of pS2 with mucinous differentiation or well differentiation grade of the tumors.
However, it is little know about the prognostic significance of the pS2 content in ovarian carcinomas. The aims of the present work were to analyze the cytosolic pS2 content in benign and malignant ovarian tumors , its relationship with clinico-pathologic parameters, steroid receptor status, and prognostic significance. The tissues were 8 normal ovaries, 43 benign tumors and 40 malignant ovarian tumors.
The relationship between cytosolic content and clinico-pathologic factors was examined by the Mann-Whitney or Kruskall-Wallis test. Correlation between steroid receptors and pS2 content was calculated with the Spearman test. Survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the log-rank test.
Results: pS2 could be detected in 30 cases Only one normal ovary showed detectable levels of pS2 and there were not differences in cytosolic content between benign and malignant ovarian tumors. Significantly higher. Diagnosis of ovarian tumors by ultrasonography and x-ray CT. A drawback in ultrasonography, an indispensable technique in imaging ovarian malignancies, is that it sometimes shows false positive for benign tumors including dermoid cyst and ovarian endometriosis. To overcome this, the concurrent use of X-Ray CT seems warrantable and this led us to carry out the study summarized below.
CT was carried out on of ovarian disease cases which had undergone ultrasonography. The results obtained were as follows. Of the cases subjected to both techniques, those who were deemed false positive were 39 in ultrasonography and 12 in CT. Ultrasonographic imagings of dermoid cyst and ovarian endometriosis were classified on the basis of their patterns. The results obtained revealed that those in which it was difficult to discriminate the image from ovarian malignancy were types V and VI in dermoid cyst and type III-C in ovarian endometriosis.
Tubal ligation and salpingectomy and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumors. Furthermore, bilateral salpingectomy may represent an opportunity for surgical prevention of serous ovarian cancer. We required that cases and controls have no previous cancer and that controls have no previous bilateral oophorectomy. Epigenetic changes within the promoter region of the HLA-G gene in ovarian tumors. Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous findings have suggested that epigenetic-mediated HLA-G expression in tumor cells may be associated with resistance to host immunosurveillance.
To explore the potential role of DNA methylation on HLA-G expression in ovarian cancer, we correlated differences in HLA-G expression with methylation changes within the HLA-G regulatory region in an ovarian cancer cell line treated with 5-aza-deoxycytidine 5-aza-dC and in malignant and benign ovarian tumor samples and ovarian surface epithelial cells OSE isolated from patients with normal ovaries.
Results A region containing an intact hypoxia response element HRE remained completely methylated in the cell line after treatment with 5-aza-dC and was completely methylated in all of the ovarian tumor malignant and benign samples examined, but only variably methylated in normal OSE samples.
HLA-G expression was significantly increased in the 5-aza-dC treated cell line but no significant difference was detected between the tumor and OSE samples examined.
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